Generally, renal failure is defined as a decrease in the kidneys’ ability to filter fluid. It can be caused by a number of medical conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. It may also occur as a result of injury or infection.
Kidneys are responsible for filtering the blood and removing waste products and excess fluid. They also produce red blood cells and hormones that strengthen bones. Symptoms of kidney failure may occur all at once or they may be sporadic. It is important to detect kidney disease early to prevent it from worsening. A doctor may perform a biopsy of the kidney to check for disease or damage. The sample is removed through surgery and examined under a microscope. The goal of treatment is to restore kidney function.
Some of the signs of kidney failure are proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), hematuria (the presence of red blood cells in the urine), azotemia (the presence of blood in the urine), and diastolic dysfunction (when the diastolic blood pressure is lower than the systolic blood pressure). In addition, a person with kidney failure may experience low blood count, a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and swelling in the feet or legs.
Chronic kidney failure (CKD) is a chronic condition that affects approximately 15 percent of adults. This condition is more common in older people, and is also more common among women. It is most often caused by diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions. A patient with CKD may need dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace the function of their kidneys.
Chronic kidney failure can be caused by a number of different factors, but a doctor may identify the cause through a blood test. Blood tests can measure the levels of minerals, electrolytes, and other substances in the blood. In addition, the doctor may order a kidney biopsy to determine the cause of kidney failure.
The first test most doctors perform to evaluate a patient’s kidneys is a renal ultrasound. A renal ultrasound uses a transducer to send sound waves to the kidneys. The ultrasound is then viewed on a video screen. This test can also be used to identify kidney masses or problems with the ureters.
Another type of test is a computed tomography (CT) scan, which uses X-rays to produce detailed images of the inside of the body. CT can be used to examine kidney problems and to look for blockages in the arteries or veins. However, this type of test is not usually possible when kidney failure is present.
Some patients with kidney failure may develop weak bones over time. The body builds up fluid in the bones, and they can begin to swell. A nephrologist can advise patients to limit their fluid intake. This is important because it reduces the amount of toxins that build up in the kidneys. A dialysis machine can also be used to clean the blood.
During the treatment process, the patient may have a limited diet. They may be required to drink fluid through an IV, and may need to restrict their intake of salt and potassium. It is also important to follow the doctor’s recommendations and stay active. Medications can also be changed to help manage the condition.